Basic Networking Concepts | CompTIA IT Fundamentals+ (FC0-U61) | Free Test Prep Course from ITProTV

Hello and welcome to ITPro.TV. You are watching
the CompTIA IT Fundamental show. I’m your host Ronnie Wong, and today, we’ll be taking a look at well,
basic networking concepts. And here of course, to help us to
understand that mysterious world of networking better, is gonna be well,
the mystery man himself, Mr. Don Pezet. Don, welcome to the show. Thanks for having me, Ronnie. And it’s gonna be a fun show cuz we’re
gonna talk about computer networking. And if you are a older viewer, you probably remember a time when
computers weren’t networked. Where networks were a completely optional
thing that we didn’t have to have, and there was all sorts of choice. It is not like that anymore. Networks are practically a guaranteed
element of any computer system. In fact, when I sit down at a computer and
find out that it’s not networked, I look at it and say, well, what am I
supposed to do with this thing, right? We have pretty much entered a stage in
our civilization where we expect to have Internet access. Or at a minimum, the ability to rapidly
share data between one system and another. And having multiple computers
is also a commonplace thing. So computer networks are super important. What lot of people don’t realize is there
is a lot of technology that goes behind building those networks. And it’s an entire career field that you
can make that your specialization and say, I want to be a network administrator. And for me personally,
I know you feel the same way, Ronnie, it’s a very rewarding career. Because unlike computers where,
you would think a computer deals in 1s and 0s, things would either work or
they wouldn’t work, right? But Microsoft has proven with Windows
that sometimes things sort of work. [LAUGH] There’s like in between area,
in between 1 and 0. Well, in the networking world,
it’s actually very stable, very reliable. You can build network infrastructure,
put it in place and it’ll run for years without failure. And I have always found
that really rewarding work. So it is an unique career field. If you’ve never dealt with networking
though, you’re in the right place. We’re gonna take a look at some
of the basic concepts that go on behind the scenes to create a network,
to allow it to function. And help you to determine whether or not computer networking is going to be
an area that you’d like to specialize in the future. All right, so Don when I was first learning about
networking, one of the first things that people told me is networks are just
computers talking to one another. So Don, how does that concept fit in? Because I know I didn’t really
have to learn how to talk so much as much as I listened, and
all of a sudden I was able to talk. But in computers though, they don’t
tend to be able to just communicate on their own. Right, and comparing it to human language is
actually a really good example. So you speak English, I speak English, right? Right. So the first time I met you, which I’m trying to remember,
it was many years ago. I can’t remember the first time I met you. But it’s not like somebody
had to come to me and say, Don, let me teach you how
to talk to Ronnie, right? I just walked up to you and talked, right? But it’s not always like that and
if you think about, if you were to go and
meet the president or a military general? Somebody might come to you and say, all
right, here’s how you need to speak to his royal highness or whatever, right? Protocols that exist. If you were gonna meet the Queen in England? There’s a protocol that you follow and
somebody might have to teach you that. Now when I was a kid,
my parents taught me manners and so when I talk to people I might follow
a certain protocol because of that. Some people didn’t get taught manners and
they might not follow that. You might be from different regions, you have different dialects,
computers are the same way. Sometimes computers speak
completely different languages, and you need a translator. You need somebody to sit in between. It used to be like that with Apple
computers and Microsoft Windows computers, that Windows was running a protocol called
NetBEUI, Macs were running a protocol called AppleTalk,
they didn’t work together, right? And you have to have a translator
in between to let them communicate. On today’s world, we’re kind of fortunate, in that almost every computer speaks the
same language, a language called TCP/IP, which is the Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol. Don’t worry about the details on it,
it is so ubiquitous that pretty much every
system these days runs TCP/IP. If it doesn’t run TCP/IP, the odds
are it’s not connected to a network. Like that’s become the standard. It’s a standard protocol for the Internet,
and as a result if you a Mac, if you have Windows machine, if you have an Android
cell phone, an iOS phone, all of these devices, they can jump on a network and
they can talk to each other, right? Now that structure,
that ability to talk to each other, that’s not just something
that’s guessed at, right? There is some teaching. We learn to speak whatever our
native language is from our parents. Well, these computers learn
to speak from their parents, from the engineers that designed them. And those engineers all
followed a standard model. And this is supposed to be a basic
networking concepts shows, so I don’t want to freak people out
with crazy technical details. But all computer networking follows a
standard model that’s called the OSI model or the open standards interconnect model. And I’ve got a diagram
here on my computer. This is a diagram I whipped up a few years
back that helped kind of illustrate how this model works. It’s a seven layer model. And when you send data from your computer,
so let’s say I send Ronnie an email, okay? I’m starting way up here at
layer 7 when I write that email. And then the email goes down all these
layers to the very bottom which maps to the physical cable,
get sent over to Ronnie’s computer. And at Ronnie’s computer,
it starts down here at the bottom, and it goes back up to the top to
where he can read the email. So when I sent that email,
not only did I pass through the OSI model, I passed through it twice. I went down the model on
the way out to Ronnie, and at Ronnie’s end it went back up the model. And if he replies to me,
it bounces back to that model again. But this model creates a structured way
for two systems to talk to each other. And when I say two systems,
I mean laptops, phones, routers, switches, firewalls,
access points, ATM machines, cash registers, refrigerators these days.,
the scale in my bathroom, they all communicate using networking now,
and they all follow this model. This model breaks up
the communication into pieces, pieces that can be made to be compatible. If Microsoft wants to do something totally
different than Apple, that’s fine, they can do that, as long as they
do it up here at the top layers. As long as the bottom layers are the same,
Microsoft will be able to talk to Apple, no problem, right? Then it usually starts around layer 4,
so layers 1 through 4. As long as those are the same, two computers will be able
to talk to each other. And if you look over on the side,
I think my head covers some of it up. But at layer 3 and layer 4,
that’s where we have TCP and IP. I mentioned TCP/IP is a standard used
by darn near every machine out there. So if you become a network engineer, you’ll find the bulk of your time is
spent on these bottom four layers. There’s seven layers altogether, but those four where you’ll spend most
of your time doing your work. If you’re a developer or a system admin, the bulk of your time is spent
up here in layers 5 through 7. It creates a divide. And the divide is so well defined that
when you go to a lot of IT apartments, they’ll have a system administrator
team and a network administrator team. They’ll have a separate networking team,
if it’s a large company. If it’s a small company or
maybe in a medium, they might blend roles. But larger organizations will have a
dedicated networking team that is focused just on layer 1 through 4. And the cool thing about networking,
and what I always thought was cool, was I didn’t care if you used a MAC or
Windows. And somebody would say, I like
Google Chrome, I hate Internet Explorer or FireFox is the best browser, or MAC OS is
way better, or I only run Ubuntu Linux. I don’t care. You all use TCP/IP and I make sure that
gets from point A to point B, right? That’s a rewarding thing to be able to do. So this model plays into
all communications, but we don’t really see it that way. As an end-user,
we see something much different. We see something like this, right? I’ve kind of charted out a home, and
I’ve charted it out in a way that shows every device that’s involved with
getting your computer onto the Internet. When you browse to the Internet, your computer doesn’t just go
straight out to the Internet. It communicates through
a series of equipment. And it might be completely broken out,
like I’ve got it here in the diagram. But in today’s world, we usually have
something much more simple, right? Back in the old days, and when I say that, I mean 1980, 1990,
not a long time ago, right? But back in the 1980s, 1990s,
you would have separate equipment for all of this stuff. And some of it, you wouldn’t even have,
like wireless didn’t exist back then, but you would have separate
piece of equipment. Technology has advanced so far that we have small devices that
are able to perform a lot of these roles. So for example, your home might actually
look like this, where you have laptops, and PCs, and cell phones, and TVs. That all just connect to
a device that is a router, wireless access point, switch, and
firewall, all wrapped into one. And in fact, in the next episode, we’re
gonna show how to configure a wireless router, and we’ll run through the process
of setting up one of these devices that does all of that wrapped into one. But that one device,
it’s just really talented. It is actually perfoming the role
of four different devices. And so in my first diagram here,
I’m showing all of those devices kind of separately, and each one plays a different
role in your communication, right? Each one is providing a different function
or feature to let your network do its job. And if you become a network engineer, one of the things you have to
do is design networks like this. So that they operate efficiently and
reliability. That communications are always able
to get from point A to point B, the way that you expect. So that’s something we have to be
aware of as we design a network. That the OSI model is back there,
the complex protocols are back there, all this crazy engineering
stuff is back there. But at the end of the day,
it’s really like a highway system. It’s a series of roads, and if you’ve
see one road, you’ve seen them all. It’s just knowing which
is the right one to take. So we’re building pathways
through our network to be able to connect one computer
to another computer. Or to connect one computer
out to to the Internet, which is like connecting one
computer to millions of computers. It’s really all done the same way. That’s a basic tenet of networking. All right, Don, when we start to do something
like this and we get it set up, these devices also normally have to be
somehow uniquely identified, don’t they? So how is that done? So you and I have names, but
on computers, do they have names? All right, so not only do they have names,
they have multiple names. It can be confusing at times. And going back to that OSI model, there’s different names that come
into play at different layers. So when computers talk to each other,
there’s all sorts of different things that can be happening to
allow them to find each other. And it all depends on where
the other computer happens to be. So for example,
if we take that house, right, down here I have two computers that
are plugged into a common switch. This is a pretty common thing. I’ve got a couple of computers. They’ve got a physical cable
that runs into a switch, right? Or maybe it’s a laptop, and it’s wireless, going into an access point that’s
also plugged into the switch. Wireless versus wired, that’s at
that first layer of the OSI model. After that,
the rest of the model is all the same, so they don’t even see the difference. When that laptop talks to a PC, they just talk to each other
like they’re directly connected. They don’t even think about the fact
that one of them’s wireless. But because they’re in the same home,
right? Think about, it’s dinner time, right? Dinner is done, it’s on the table and
you’re ready for the family to come sit down and
eat, right? If everybody’s right there in
the house with you, what do you do? You just yell out, hey,
everybody, dinner time, right? And everybody comes down to the table and
they eat. In networking we call that a broadcast, you’re sending one message out
to everybody who can hear it. Well, who can hear it? The people in your house. Your neighbors can’t hear that, or hopefully. [LAUGH] Some of these new houses these days are wall to wall. If you’re in a apartment, maybe your
neighbors can, but somebody across the street can’t hear that, somebody
in the next city over can’t hear that, somebody in another
country can’t hear that. It’s just the people in your home, right? Well, when you have computers plugged
into a switch, that’s their home. It’s called a local area network, or
a LAN, and that LAN, that’ their home. And they can talk to each
other just by yelling. It’s not the most efficient,
right, but it works. So if I’m on this computer down here, and
I want to talk to Ronnie on this other computer, I can just yell out,
and I can say, hey, is anybody named Ronnie out there? Yeah, I’m Ronnie. And Ronnie hears that. He hears it because he’s
right here next to me, right? He hears it and he responds. Now, let’s say you, the viewer,
I don’t know you personally, so let’s just say your name is Bob, right? So if your name is Bob,
good job, this works. And so, I yell, hey,
anybody out there named Bob? Well, if you were here in the building,
you’d hear me say that, right? And so you could just say,
yeah, yeah, my name’s Bob, and now we could have a conversation. But you’re remote. Now, you might hear me,
cuz I’m being thrown into this video, but if you’re yelling at your TV right now,
it’s me, it’s Bob! Don, why aren’t you talking to me? [LAUGH] I can’t hear, it’s not coming back, right? That type of communication doesn’t work,
but for computers on the same LAN, it does. They just yell out. They yell out and
they do it all the time, all right? Let me show you. If I jump over to my Windows machine here,
and I were to browse the hard
drive on this thing. If I browse the hard drive,
I’m browsing my own local files. But in Windows,
I can choose to browse the network, right? And, I got my
Network Discovery turned off. Let me just turn that on real quick. And I can browse the network, and it’s
going to start looking across the network to try and find other machines, right? And there it goes,
it just found a bunch of stuff. It found a computer called STORAGE01. It found Nate’s VM QNAP. PC, VMWare host,
it found a bunch of televisions, right? It did a shout out there and
said, hey, anybody out there? I’m lonely. And all of these devices replied back and
said, yeah, we’re out here, right? This guy right here, this is a Sonos
speaker that’s in Tim’s office. So if we wanted to mess with that,
throw some music at it, we could talk over there because it’s on
the same network as my laptop, right? I’m talking. And it’s really complex on the backend. On the backend,
I sent out what was called an ARP request, an address resolution protocol request,
a broadcast that goes out. And I said, is anybody out there,
and if you are, can you tell me your address,
your name, right? The name that’s being used
is something really weird. It’s what’s called a media access
control address, or M-A-C. I said a MAC address a moment ago, and some people think I mean Mac
like an Apple Macintosh. It’s media access control. Apple Macs do have MAC addresses. Windows machines have MAC addresses. Linux machines have MAC addresses. Remember that OSI model,
shared by all of them. They all have kinda the same idea. So it’s called a MAC address. And here’s the collection of MAC addresses
that my Windows machines is seeing. There’s a lot of them here, right? Now, when I was looking in this
window back here, there weren’t. I was about to say there weren’t that
many devices, but man, there sure are, aren’t there?. [LAUGH] There is a lot of devices on our network. We’re an IT company,
we have a lot of gadgets apparently. Here’s Don’s office. And don’t office, look,
those are two TVs that are in my office. So I can spot those, Don’t Fire TV,
I don’t have a Fire TV. There you go. [LAUGH]
Do we have another employee named Don? See, this is how we discover and
we learn, right? So the computer is discovering and
finding, and when it talks to each of them,
it’s making a list. This list that I’ve got in
the background here, and it’s saying, here’s the people that I’ve met,
and if I wanna talk to them, this is the address I can use to talk. And so when we communicate that
computer will send a message out. It’ll send the message to a switch or
a hub or some other device, a wireless access point. And that device will send it on to
the right machine at the other end. And that machine will receive
the communication and then reply back. This is all happening at this layer 1,
layer 2 type area in the OSI model. They’re communicating back and
forth using these simple addresses. And oftentimes,
you don’t even have to configure it. This is just working by default. On my Windows machine,
what did I have to do? I didn’t have to configure the network. I just had to tell Windows, yeah,
I wanna share stuff on my network. And the moment I said that, all of
the devices showed up, and now I can. There’s still things like authentication,
and security and all that on top of it. But I see the devices now, and
I can start to talk to them. And on my Windows machine, but I can guarantee you many of these
devices aren’t running Windows. I mean, down here at the bottom,
there’s printers. Those printers aren’t running Windows,
Linux, or Mac. They’re running proprietary operating
systems that are powering those printers. Some of these up here, I know are Macs. Some of them I know are Windows. Nate, I know that his virtual machine
that he has, he has a Windows machine. And some of these other ones,
I have no idea what they are. That looks like a serial number to me so
I’m not quite sure what that one is. But those devices, they’re out there or
communicating, and this is a basic example of
simple in-house communications. A network just needs a device,
like a hub or a switch, to interconnect these devices so
they can communicate. And then TCP/IP or other protocols kick in to allow those
devices to exchange information. The hardest part here is just
plugging in the cables, right? If your home is not pre-wired, trying to run cables through a wall
can actually be a bit of a struggle. If they’re all in the same room, you
can just stick a switch right there and plug the computers in,
and you’re in business. And that’s where access points really come
in handy is if your building isn’t wired, you can set up a wireless access point. And your laptops, your cell phones,
they can jump on it without cabling. And now they can communicate on
the network as well, and you’ll see and communicate with them too. So that’s really a basic aspect of
what’s called a local communication. The MAC address, the media access control
address, that’s what powers this. And if we go back to my OSI model diagram, you’ll see where I’ve got down here
at layer 2, this data link layer. There’s a little box
here that says MAC and that’s the media access control
address that lets us move data between two computers on the same network. All right, Don, so helping us understand this idea of the
Local Area Network and that home network. But we also had those other devices and if I now need to communicate outside the
network and I can’t use the MAC address, well, how am I gonna do this? All right, so that’s where things get more complex,
all right? MAC addresses, we can use those to
communicate if we’re on the same network. So if I shout out and I say, hey, is anybody named Ronnie? Well, Ronnie, right here. Ronnie hears me, right? He replies back. We’ve got it. But what if Ronnie’s at home? So if he’s at home, Ronnie lives a long,
long away from here. So-
[LAUGH] So about an hour away. Right. So if I’m standing right here at this podium, and maybe we’re not
streaming on the Internet or anything like that and I just say,
hey, anybody have the name Ronnie? I’m not gonna hear anything. Meanwhile, he’s sitting at home,
got his feet up on the table, just relaxing, has no idea that
I’m trying to find him, right? So computers have to have a way to
find people that are far away, right? And that’s where things start
to get a little more complex cuz your average computer can’t do it. That, on the Internet,
we’ll use the Internet as an example cuz that’s normally what we’re talking about,
right? On the Internet there are millions of
computers spread all around the globe. Your computer can’t know all of them. And broadcasts don’t work. Imagine if I sent a broadcast
out to the entire world, right? I’m just trying to find Ronnie,
Ronnie’s who’s maybe an hour away. And I’m gonna send a message to everyone
on the planet, is anybody named Ronnie? Well, let’s assume that worked-
Yeah, [LAUGH] Right, okay? How many Ronnie’s are in the planet? A lot. There would be a lot of confusion. We have to have a way to
tell those people apart. We have to have a way to communicate
efficiently and we can’t broadcast. Broadcast are not allowed on the Internet. If you send a broadcast out, your ISP,
whoever your Internet service provider is just deletes it,
they don’t forward it along. On the Internet we use
what are called unicast. A unicast is a message sent from
one machine to one other machine, a one-to-one communication. On a local network,
you’ll normally start with a broadcast. You’ll broadcast to find somebody,
and once you’ve found them then you switch to a unicast and
now you’re unicasting back and forth. But on the Internet, it’s got to
be unicast from the very beginning because you just can’t send
a broadcast out there on the Internet. And that’s a problem, because I can’t
just reach out to the world and say, hey, I’m looking for somebody named Ronnie. That doesn’t work, right? So first off, I have to know
somebody’s remote, and second, I have to have a way to get there. So how do I know the remote? Well, MAC addresses, media access
control addresses, those are automatic. They’re burned into your computer. They’re assigned at the factory. So you don’t configure them,
they’re just done, they’re there. But there’s another type of address that’s
up here at the layer 3 of the OSI model, called a network address. And if you’re using TCP/IP,
which all of us are, that network address is
called a an IP address. IP stands for Internet protocol. Internet protocol address. And that Internet protocol address
tells you who’s on your network and who’s somewhere else in the world, right? When I look at my Windows machine,
let me go back to that command prompt. And I’m gonna just run a little
command called ipconfig. Don’t worry so much about the command. But when I look at it, I can see I
have an IPv4 address right here. Mine is, all right? Now Ronnie,
do you know the IP address of your laptop? Ronnie is gonna look up his address. That address right there
is the IPv4 address for my laptop and
I’ve got a Subnet Mask right here. The Subnet Mask tells me, or it gives me a hint, as to who’s on
the same network as me, and who’s remote. When I look at the Subnet Mask,
see how there’s a 255, and then a 255, and then a 0, and a 0? The 255s, that’s telling me which of
these numbers identify as my network. And the 0s tell me who identifies
people on my network, right? So my network, where it’s got 255.255,
my network is 10.0, okay? Anybody whose address starts with
10.0 is on the same network as me. The rest of it, 13.24,
that’s just my laptop. Nobody else will use that same one, because otherwise they’d bump into me,
right? So that’s gonna be the host. Well, Ronnie looked, and what’s your IP?>>It is 228, all right. So His 13.228, that doesn’t match mine,
but that’s good. We don’t want those to match,
we’d bump into each other, but his does start with 10.0. His laptop is on the same
network as my laptop. We can talk to each other, and it was this Subnet Mask that
helped me figure that out, right? What if it wasn’t the same? What if Ronnie said, yeah,
my address is Well, 209.251 is different than 10.0,
we’re not on the same network. I can use that address to figure out,
Ronnie’s not on the network with me, so I don’t know how to get to him. If I want to get to Ronnie I’m
gonna get some help. And that help comes in the form
of a device called a router. I go back to my diagram, we’ve been
talking about local communications which occur through a switch or
through an access point. But a router is a device that connects
more than one network together. It connects your local area
network with another network. Now in an enterprise, in a big business,
you might have several LANs. So it might be connecting multiple LANs. But in a home environment
like in my diagram, that other network is
usually the Internet. That router is connecting
us to the Internet. And that Internet,
it is a whole collection of thousands of LANs that have
all been joined together. And when you do that, it’s not called
a LAN anymore, it’s called a WAN. It’s called a wide area network, a wide area network covers
a wide geographic area. In the case of the Internet,
it’s the entire planet. It covers the whole globe. And when I wanna communicate out there,
I need a road map, right? If you just got on the interstate
system or got on the highway and thought you could drive to
a city a 1,000 miles away, odds are you’re gonna
get lost along the way. You need a map. And if you have an atlas or Google Maps,
or Waze, definitely not Apple Maps, but if you have some kind of mapping program,
then you’ll find your way there, right? That’s what routers are,
routers are like navigators. When I go to that router and I say,
look, I’m trying to get to Ronnie. His address is totally different than
mine, I don’t know how to get there. The router says, hey, no problem. No problem, I’ll get you there. And I send my data to the router, and the router figures out the best
way to send the data along. Now if I’m talking to somebody local,
I don’t need the router at all. I can ignore the router,
I can just talk directly to that person. But anything remote, that traffic’s
gonna go through the router, and the router will send it
out to the Internet. And this stuff happens all the time,
and we don’t even see that, right? It’s kind of invisible. So for example, if I go to my Windows
machine and I fire up a Web browser, and I’m gonna go to,
let’s just go to, right? So I’m going to, eventually I’m
going to, I will get there. And once I’m there,
I’m pulling up their page. Now, believe it or not, CNN does not keep their servers
here in the building at ITProTV. So their servers are somewhere else. I don’t even know where, I have no idea. They might be Atlanta,
that’s where CNN’s based out of. But they’re a big organization, so their
servers are probably all over the planet. I have no idea where I went,
but somehow I got there, right? The router figured out how to get there,
and it did it for me. That’s all invisible. That’s the glory of networking. When networks work properly,
you don’t even know they’re there. You don’t even see it happen,
I’m just magically talking to CNN. In reality, I went through at
least five different routers to get to CNN, each router helping each other
out to get me all the way over there. And if we take a look at that process,
we can actually see it. Let’s see here, that was,
I just went to, right? So I’m using a little
utility called traceroute. And what traceroute does is it takes
a look at the path that you follow to get to do some destination. And so here it’s going, and
I can see that I left our building. And I moved over to our
Internet service provider. Our service provider is called GRU,
the Gainesville Regional Utilities. They sent me to some
node that has no name. And then I was sent over to NTT, which
is a big telecom in Atlanta, Georgia. I got sent to Atlanta, Georgia,
and then I got sent to CNN. I just guessed five earlier and
I lucked out. So I hit five routers. I passed through five different, well,
actually I didn’t pass through five. I passed through four different routers. This last one is the actual server
that I was communicating with. So I passed through four routers, all routers help me figure
out where I was getting to. Sometimes you might pass
through a lot more. Let’s see,
what would be a good example of that? Let’s say I’m going to somewhere
that’s in England, right? I’ve got to jump overseas to
get to a foreign website, or maybe one in Russia, right? So if I did a traceroute to,
we’ll do It’s a tabloid or whatever. Russia’s the first thing
that popped into my mind. So when I’m reaching out to them, their
servers aren’t gonna be here in the US, well, probably not. So I’m gonna get routed over. And actually I can see,
I jumped over to France right there. So I’m getting sent
over cross-continental. You can always spot when
you go cross-continental, cuz see how these times jumped up? I was at 13 milliseconds and
then I jumped to 111 milliseconds, right? That’s a big jump. And now I jumped up to 200 milliseconds. And that’s usually because we’re
doing a transatlantic cable. I went under the ocean for
a while to get over there. I had to pass through seven different
routers to get to Pravda, right, so a big jump to get there. Sometimes it can be 11, 15 routers, right? But in today’s day and age,
where everybody is doing cloud deployment, you’re usually much closer to
where you’re trying to get. But these are all routers that are working
together to help you get to a destination. And in your own home,
you would have a router or a small office/big office enterprise. And that is the first leg in that journey. That router says you’re
coming from one network, you’re going to a different network,
let me help you get there. I’m gonna help steer you along. Now the router, it doesn’t know how
to get to Russia either, right? But it knows the next router in line,
which is your service provider. And your service provider does
know how to get to Russia. And so it then goes to the next router,
and the next router, to finally get you over there, and
now you’re talking to that server. And just using Russia as an example,
right, it could be just talking to Google or
Microsoft, France, whoever. This process is the same. That’s really the cool part about
networking is, for the most part, it’s language independent, politics
independent, religion independent. It’s just, look, we’re gonna get
you from point A to point B. We don’t care what you’re doing,
we’re just gonna make it happen. We’re gonna get you there. And that’s kind of a rewarding
part I find with networking. But that’s basically that next stage
when we can communicate remotely. Now, there’s a little more to
it that I wanna highlight. I keep showing you these
IP addresses on the screen. For some of you, this might be the first
time you’ve seen an IP address, because we normally hide those with names. And I wanna talk about that
process a little bit more. And there’s some more just on
how these communications occur. But Ronnie is giving me the out
of time signal over here. So why don’t we break
this into a two-parter, and in the next episode
we’ll pick back up. I wanna talk more about
those remote communications. I wanna talk about names, how names
work attached to IP addresses, and how we hide all this from our users,
and see that functionality, as well as delve a little bit more into
how we actually transmit that data, which is pretty neat stuff. All right, Don. Well, thank you for helping us to
understand this concept a bit more. If we haven’t seen any
networking technology at all, at least we understand
the concept of communication and how that’s beginning to work, especially
between the computers inside our network, and even on the basics of us extending
outside of our own network as well. But that’s gonna do it for
this episode then. Signing off for ITProTV,
I’m your host Ronnie Wong. And I’m Don Pezet. Stay tuned right here for more of your CompTIA IT Fundamentals show. [MUSIC] Thank you for watching ITProTV.

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