in this lecture and a subsequent few we are
going to go through some of the basics on the networking aspects of internet of things
so the first thing that we need to understand is that iot has evolved a lot so starting
from basic research basic fundamental research and innovation there has been different other
types of innovation which are dik through ah which are disruptive and some of the other
innovations which are sustaining in nature so in terms of basic research there has been
lot of research on ah the nanotechnology the use of nanotechnology the use of quantum [teletransport/ah
teleportation] ah teleportation quantum teleportation basically means that how ah the different
information at the atomic level is sent from one point to another
so is transported from one point to another at the atomic level and nanotechnology ah
it involves things like nanoiot nanonodes nanonetworking nodes ah nanosensor nodes and
ah nanonetworks that means at the nanoscale forming a network which can be for different
purposes nanonetworks are used for different purposes ah in the human inside the human
body at the molecular level nanonetworks can be used so like this at the nanoscale and
ah for quantum ah ah ah communication there has been lot of ah advertisements ah that
has been done ah for ah involving ah basic innovations basic research innovations
so this is one likewise ah for ah semantic interoperability there has been lot of research
on semantic in for interoperability for example let us see that a temperature sensor it might
be given the data as temp another temperature sensor as temperature another temperature
sensor the third one st so there has to be interoperability between all these different
colossians but they are all different to the same temperature right so this is basically
taken care of by things like semantic interoperability there has been lot of research on this one
this particular aspect then energy harvesting again there has been lot of research ah you
know energy harvesting through different renewable ah sources ah such as wind energy solar etcetera
etcetera how these can harvest you know how these deferent renewable sources ah from these
how energy can be harvested to power the different nodes and iot these are very small powered
you know small sized nodes with very [la/limited] limited power
so energy harvesting is very crucial it plays a crucial role in the sustenance of these
networks so ah there has been lot of work on this one also and this has been like you
know these aspects for example there has been lot of brick through innovation on these ah
then disruptive innovation ah for example virtual reality augmented reality you know
so these are all like ah you know involvement of these an incorporation into the iot network
ah there has been lot of ah ah research ah on on this particular front and ah things
like cloud ah big data these are like sustaining technologies for iot again there has been
lot of work on ah these technologies ah as well ah now when we talk about iot if we think
about iot what we have we have these different things ah ah which as i said in one of the
previous lectures is these things are fitted ah ah these are basically physical objects
once again so these physical objects are fitted with different sensors and these sensors basically
ah sense different physical phenomena that are occurring around them
so these sensor fitted things sensors actuators and different other emirate devices ah these
these are one component of the iot so but these become the different nodes in the network
these are the individual nodes in the network so then what we have is these nodes they have
to communicate with one another and the information that is sensed by one of these sensors fitted
to this nodes this information from the sensor and the other sensors these are taken and
are sent to the other sensor nodes the destination nodes so how is that turn first these information
have to flow through the local network and then if the destination intended destination
is outside this local network then it is sent through the internet typically if it is if
we are talking about an iot which is basically internet ah based iot then basically it is
going to flow through the internet or some other wide area network and finally it is
going to arrive at the intended destination node and from there may be there can be some
there can be some ah at that point actually there can be some analytic engine which is
running on some backend server ah those could be there and from that point from the decision
from these analytics they can run on this servers ah decisions about actuation could
be made so what we see is from sensors to actuators
through the local area network the internet involving ah you know [black/backend] backend
services analytics ah which includes again some you know high end processing at deferent
servers ah and different [complec/complex] complex algorithms execution of different
[call/complex] algorithms ah which are based on may be machine learning ah neural networks
and so on and so forth these are all required so so basically you know what happens is we
basically can conceive ah of an iot as a very complex system involving sensors actuators
ah networks local area wide area internet and ah ah different servers different algorithms
machine learning and so on all executing ah together to make the system function as as
one single entity so going back we have ah in this local network as you are saying then
we have the internet we have the backend ah services and finally the applications that
i have been served so these are the different basic components
of iot so this is the scenario that i was referring to earlier so what we have we have
these different things we have these different things these things could be ah like you know
different ah physical objects which are fitted with different sensors these things could
be telephones ah lightning systems ah could be cameras could be different other scanner
sensors like ah the temperature sensor and so on and these things are able to communicate
with one another with the help of wireless technologies like zigbee bluetooth wifi and
so on so as you can see that this wireless basically helps these different devices to
talk to one another and this information from these devices they will fro through a local
network and from a local network they will go through the internet to ah ah to the ah
you know these data are basically sent to the backend services involving different servers
processors and so on and so forth for running different analytics and then based on that
different devices can be actuated ah um ah you know ah may be a pump ah this is an example
that i gave earlier in a previous lecture basically for agricultural purposes the use
of iot a pump might be started might be actuated based on the data that is received from the
sensor nodes and based on analytics are run at the different servers ah a ah in a that
are involved in the backend service processing so in terms of the functional components of
iot so one of the very important things is basically interaction interaction not only
with the physical environment by this different sensors but also interaction and communication
with the different devices ah ah ah that means a different nodes in the iot in the iot network
then comes the processing so processing and analysis of the different functioning and
the operations that taken place so processing of that ah data the processing of operations
ah so this is another component ah the third functional component is basically the interaction
interaction typically with the internet ah and because you know at present most of the
times the most of the iot implementations are still using the internet so it is all
you know internet powered iot implementations so ah internet interaction is a ah is one
of the very important ah ah components of ah building iot then we have the web services
web services machine to machine communication and so on so basically it what is going to
happen earlier most of the so when you talk about a web technology typically we are talking
about human to machine communication you know web service we are talking about ah you know
ah some machine ah ah sending ah or some ah some ah equipment basically sensing and sending
that data to another machine for further processing or machine to machine communication is involved
and offering different services so one machine offer some services to another machine and
so on so so like this ah and this is basically you know this sort of thing in a iot scenario
is taken care of ah ah um ah typically and then we have ah the integration of different
applications services and the user interface to access the iot that is another component
so there has to be is a user interface a human interface to accessing the iot network or
the iot ah you know mega network so looking at this particular figure i would like to
try to clarify how the iot implementation is typically done and it can be done to achieve
different application needs so this is a figure which shows that we have different sensors
processors and radio it refitted to each of this devices or the sensor nodes or the sensor
motes or the iot motes as you may want to call them so these motes they talk to one
another but these different sensor nodes these different sensor nodes they are basically
within the jurisdiction or the domain of the gateway so the gateway is basically tasked
to assign different local locally unique addresses to these different nodes to these different
iot nodes and the gateway basically takes care of the local addressing within that particular
local area network so from the that point all the data can flow through a proxy server
if internet access is required so it will go through the internet then a web socket
and from the web socket it goes through a cloud server that means this is where lot
of analytics and backend processing takes place and based on that the actuation based
on the analytics and the infer ant says that and run from the sensed data actuation of
different devices can take place for example lighting a particular lamp could
be the actuation of that particular lamp we have different interdependencies that are
evolved in the implementation of iot so we have if we look at iot from another prospective
or we have we have sensors we have actuators and a bunch of other things that are they
are in between has shown in this particular figure so this is basically the entire spend
of these different embedded devices so the sensors basically sense the data and that
data is basically serving the application requirements and then we have an operating
system and a power management unit which basically you know does things like duty cycling of
the sensors the how much the sensors ah you know how much time we are going to be active
or how much time they are going to be in the sleep state how to power them how to power
them because these are very small sized you know very resource staved sensors so ah and
the the basically the power unit in these sensor nodes these are very small ah in size
so basically consequently what happens is these embedded devices they themselves are
very resource staved so we have ah a very power management unit which basically takes
care of power management as a whole how much power is require for how long it is going
to power then what are the ways to harvest energy if at all it can be harvested and ah
how much power consumption is going to take place at different points of time can it be
can it be optimized ah different points of ah operation ah on so on and so forth and
a as you can see over here there after we have these different radios involving bluetooth
zigbee six low pan wifi ethernet and ah low range ah basically wifi ah
so these are the different you know radios that can help ah in communicating the data
ah that is sensed ah ah ah onward to other nodes these these basically these [di/different]
different radio technologies can help in the [com/for] for the communication purpose so
alongside we also have things like virtual machines which the takes care of the virtualization
of the nodes we have the web ah we have ah you know different things like http client
mqtt client coap client so these are the once mqtt coap we are going to talk next in in
the ah subsequent lectures so ah ah that will make our understanding clearance but these
are like no different application level ah protocols that are used for functioning of
these different iot devices and finally comes the actuator verticals
so we have the sensors we have different applications operating system power management radios virtual
machines web and then we have these actuators all together which forms the embedded systems
the embedded devices now you let us now look at the service orientation the service oriented
architecture of ah ah iot so in the iot if here what we have at these different layers
the sensing layer the network layer the service layer and the interface layer so we have four
different layers and as the name suggests sensing layer basically takes care of sensing
through different rfid tags sensors and so on so fourth and then data are sensed are
acquired and so on are sent to the next layer higher up which is the network layer the network
layer basically ah serves sensor networks social networks you know different other networks
and data bases internet and so on that is the network layer then what we have we have
the service layer which deals [mo/mostly] mostly with the service delivery ah such as
ah service ah division service integration ah service ah ah you know service repository
ah service ah logic ah by business logic and so on so all these different things that i
involved with the offering of the services to support the business functions
then we have the interface layer we have the application frontend we have ah a contract
interface and application apis so so [these/this] this becomes the interface layer and when
we have the security issues which basically span all these different ah layer verticals
ah sorry layer horizontals so in terms of ah ah the categorization of iot it can be
categorized into two one is the consumer iot which is what typically most of the people
tempt to use and these are ah here basically these different devices they communicate ah
with another ah ah ah through these local networks and it can be you know find a further
communication you can also take place over the internet as well so depending on the requirements
either local or ah through the internet then we have the local communication which is typically
done via bluetooth zigbee or wifi and ah so basically this local communication is constraint
within the bounds of or within the domain of the iot gateway so ah this is consumer
iot then ah we have the industrial iot which is basically ah ah quite similar to the consumer
iot but ah the application ah ah uh the application interest is in the industrial sector
so we are talking about manufacturing industries with different machines with these machines
are fitted with different iot devices they together become the iot device they have different
sensors and so on feature there which can the node as a whole can communicate with other
machines and so on so this becomes the industrial iot and ah basically there are different communication
that takes place between the different nodes as well as different industry specific technologies
now we talk about iot gateways ah so this is what i told you that ah in a local network
you have this locally unique addresses ah and that are they are ah within that local
area network iot network and so ah ah so these local addresses basically they take
care of ah ah the addressing of the ah the different nodes now so what are these gateways
doing so the gateways basically take care of the addressing but then ah in this is what
the gateway structure looks like so this is ah what ah is here so we have the local network
on one side of the gateway we have the global network on the other side of the gateway and
this is where the the gateway this is how the gateway looks like so the gateway has
ah and functions different tasks such as switching ah routing protocol conversion firewall and
vpn services security as a whole and processing so this is what a gateway does and the gateway
with the local network and the global network communicate via the wired or wireless channels
ah and so on so this is how the iot gateways function different associated technologies
of iot ah involving big data cloud smart grid internet of vehicles ah that means you know
different vehicles on the road ah ah are fitted with different iot devices which can communicate
with one another and different intelligence about the route traffic conditions about the
offering different ah road side services ah ah can be make possible with the help of internet
of vehicles then we have the machine to machine communication where one machine talks to another
without any human intervention we have telemedicine ah offering ah you know
offering health care services to the demote hospitals demote health care centers and so
on ah cps server physical systems we have three g four g five g we have ah sdn ah and
so on so these are the different associated technologies which together ah make ah ah
ah iot which together are used to ah deliver iot solutions now you know if we try to to
make a side by side comparison between ah the iot stack and web stack we will see that
more or less the application layers remain the same for both iot as well as the as well
as the web so conceptually these application layers these different layers communication
layers and application layers that communication layers remaining the same between iot and
web but what is different is that we have a new set of protocols that are used over
here so the new set of protocols and additionally in iot unlike in the case of web things such
as different types of management management of the network management of the power management
of different other resources these are all additionally taken care of in the iot node
ah in the iot stack ah which is not available in the case of the web and this is very much
required because you know in the case of iot we are talking about heavily resource constraint
nodes and this heavily resource constraint nodes basically required management network
management in terms of energy in terms of processing in terms of data and so on and
so forth so there are different key technologies that
basically help iot survive we have the future internet knowledge aggregation yeah obtain
through data assignation data data collection processing and ah analysis then we have the
different standards we have the sensor networks we have the communication we have cloud computing
we have discovery services nanoelectronics embedded systems software system integration
and last but not the least what is over here on top is the security on privacy issues so
security on privacy issues are per amount in iot because there are heavy concerns ah
because you know we are dealing with resource constraint nodes with communication constraints
bandwidth constraints processing constraints energy constraints and so on so these nodes
become very much valuably valuable to different type of attacks different types of security
breaches and also because iot systems are very much detail intensive there is lot of
information that frozen through the network as a consequence of which the privacy of the
individuals of the organizations might be at stack so security and privacy and trust
also which is not mentioned over here these are very much important ah to power iot technologies
there are different types of challenges securities scalability energy efficiency bandwidth management
interfacing interoperability so when we are talking about interfacing it
is typically we are referring to device interfacing so different you know one device ah talking
to another device may be these devices do not belong to the same vender they are not
running the same stack they are not following the same standard and so on so then comes
consequently then comes the interoperability issue how to make these devices talk to one
another how the different protocols the different devices the different algorithms they are
going to hand shake with one another so like this this is another challenge which is typical
of iot implementations then we have data storage an analytics and complexity management with
tools such as sdn so asdn basically helps in ah addressing the com ah the complexity
of ah systems by decupling ah the control plane from the detect plane of the networks
different considerations and they are for building iot one is that will to have a straight
network architecture which can be used by different iot implementations so there has
to be a governing network architecture number two hardware requirements and cost are important
ah you know what type of communication hardware are going to be used ah and different devices
in the costs that are involved and due to the presence of numerous applications of iot
enabled devices a single networking platform may not be sufficient to address and the needs
of the consumer or the iot device so this is another the third consideration
that has to be taken into ah ah account while building the iot systems then we have the
complexity of the networks ah you know if the number of nodes in the network increases
then whether the in the solution because if the system is going to be ah ah you know sustainable
whether it can be scaled up or not ah then we have the interface among ah interference
among the different devices this is very watch in vital in ah in any network interference
is ah a crucial issue and particularly iot networks involve lot of large number of typically
densely deployed nodes and these nodes because the at you know typically ah wireless power
ah by wifi or bluetooth or zigbee and so on so interference between these different ah
ah communication between these different nodes that at the ah corresponding radios and so
on is possible so how do you handle it network management as a whole as i was tell in earlier
involving ah you know energy management involving computation management involving communication
management involving service management and infrastructure management and so on so network
management as a whole then heterogeneity in the networks heterogeneity in terms of the
devices standards the protocols the algorithms and so on so how do you handle
because iot devices unlike traditional internet iot networks come in different ah you know
come from different venders different devices coming from different venders different devices
using different algorithms these different protocols being used and so on so so all these
ah basically invite ah dealing with the issue of heterogeneity lot of heterogeneity is involves
so how heterogeneity is taken care of and protocol organization and standardization
so ah within the network so how the different protocols can be standardized ah so that a
device running one protocol can talk to another device and so on the different wireless networks
are used issues such as traffic management load management ah then variations in the
different wireless network forms for example wireless [pa/personal] personal area network
w turn versus wireless body area network interoperability i have already mentioned just a while back
then network management and overlay network so ah ah so basically you know the overlay
network takes care of some kind of a virtualization of the physical devices on you know so ah
and and one type of this physical virtual devices and the networks and overlay is created
this is basically the overlay network scalability in involving flexibility within
the internet ah then integration of different iot devices there are many manufactured using
different standards may be in the using different ah you know vender specific ah ah protocols
ah so iot integration ah is ah a very complex issue ah which basically dictates the scalability
of the system large scale deployment issues ah and real time connectivity of billion centurions
of devices with this we come to an end of ah this lecture on ah ah on the basics of
iot networking ah um ah but this is just a first part we are going to cover ah many other
ah issues involving ah the networking aspects of iot in the subsequent lectures and from
ah there we can understand from this subsequent lectures we can understand how forming an
iot is very complex what are the different protocols individual protocols that are how
they are did may not be a single isolated or or a single ah thread head let us say ah
um ah one protocol ah for iot as a whole but there as all these individual protocols settled
there so how that can be taken care of and for how can architecture be sent up between
these different iot devices manufactured by different venders so these like this actually
there are different complexities that i have involved so we have really talk about that
in the subsequent lectures thank you

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